Popular Insurgency or Terrorism?

  • The insurgency started in 1989 as a popular insurgency due to historical grievances:

      1) Long-promised and denied self-determination.

  •   2)Consistently rigged elections.

      3)Erosion of autonomy promised under Article 370.

      4)lack of employment opportunities.

  • Between January and May 1990, hundreds of thousands of unarmed civilians poured out into the streets of Srinagar demanding self-determination. It was brutally suppressed by the State.

    Victoria Schofield, Kashmir in Conflict, New York 2000, pp.143-154.
    Balraj Puri, Kashmir: Towards Insurgency, New Delhi 1993, pp.60-61.

  • The protests against India still continue; (BBC News, Kashmir strike over civilian deaths, Feb 16 2002), albeit in lesser numbers, given the presence of half a million soldiers and endless curfews and regulations and tear-gassing and beatings.

  • Indigenous militant outfits such as JKLF and Hizb were largely secular; decimated by India and Pakistan; Foreign militants with Islamic agenda backed by Pakistan would hijack it and dominate in late nineties; However, Separatist Hizb and Pro-India Renegade militants continue to have a significant presence in several thousands.